The 23rd International Conference on Computational Linguistics (COLING 2010)

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Shanghai

   Shanghai is one of the four municipalities under the direct administration of the central government of the People's Republic of China. It is the most populous urban area in China, and the second most populous city proper in the world (after Chongqing). Shanghai is a global financial, innovation and technology, and transport hub, with the world's busiest container port. Located in the Yangtze River Delta, it sits on the south edge of the estuary of the Yangtze in the middle portion of the Eastern China coast. The municipality borders the provinces of Jiangsu and Zhejiang to the south, east and west, and is bound to the east by the East China Sea.

By the end of the Song dynasty, the center of trading had moved downstream of the Wusong River to Shanghai, which was upgraded in status from a village to a market town in 1074, and in 1172 a second sea wall was built to stabilize the ocean coastline, supplementing an earlier dike. From the Yuan dynasty in 1292 until Shanghai officially became a municipality in 1927, central Shanghai was administered as a county under Songjiang Prefecture, whose seat was at the present-day Songjiang District.

International attention to Shanghai grew in the 19th century due to European recognition of its economic and trade potential at the Yangtze. During the First Opium War (1839Ц1842), British forces occupied the city. The war ended with the 1842 Treaty of Nanking, which allowed the British to dictate opening the treaty ports, Shanghai included, for international trade. The Treaty of the Bogue signed in 1843, and the Sino-American Treaty of Wanghia signed in 1844 forced Chinese concession to European and American desires for visitation and trade on Chinese soil. Britain, France (under the 1844 Treaty of Whampoa), and the United States all carved out concessions outside the walled city of Shanghai, which was still ruled by the Chinese.

The First Sino-Japanese War concluded with the Treaty of Shimonoseki, which elevated Japan to become another foreign power in Shanghai. Japan built the first factories in Shanghai, which were soon copied by other foreign powers. Shanghai was then the most important financial centre in the Far East. All this international activity gave Shanghai the nickname "the Great Athens of China".

On 27 May 1949, the People's Liberation Army took control of Shanghai. Under the new People's Republic of China (PRC), Shanghai was one of only three municipalities not merged into neighboring provinces over the next decade (the others being Beijing and Tianjin). Shanghai underwent a series of changes in the boundaries of its subdivisions over the next decade. After 1949, most foreign firms moved their offices from Shanghai to Hong Kong, as part of a foreign divestment due to the Communist victory.

During the 1950s and 1960s, Shanghai became the centre for radical leftism since it was the industrial centre of China with most skilled industrial workers. The radical leftist Jiang Qing and her three allies, together the Gang of Four, were based in the city. Yet, even during the most tumultuous times of the Cultural Revolution, Shanghai was able to maintain high economic productivity and relative social stability. During most of the history of the PRC, Shanghai has been a comparatively heavy contributor of tax revenue to the central government, with Shanghai in 1983 contributing more in tax revenue to the central government than Shanghai had received in investment in the prior 33 years combined. This came at the cost of severely crippling welfare of Shanghainese people and Shanghai's infrastructural and capital development. Its importance to the fiscal well-being of the central government also denied it economic liberalizations begun in 1978. Shanghai was finally permitted to initiate economic reforms in 1991, starting the massive development still seen today and the birth of Lujiazui in Pudong.

Less than Beijing, the city also has some examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture or Stalinist architecture. These buildings were mostly erected during the period from the founding of the People's Republic in 1949 until the Sino-Soviet Split in the late 1960s. During this decade, large numbers of Soviet experts, including architects, poured into China to aid the country in the construction of a communist state. Examples of Soviet neoclassical architecture in Shanghai include what is today the Shanghai Exhibition Centre.

Like virtually all governing institutions in the mainland People's Republic of China, the politics of Shanghai is structured in a parallel party-government system, in which the Party Committee Secretary, officially termed the Communist Party of China Shanghai Municipal Committee Secretary (currently Li Qiang), outranks the Mayor (currently Ying Yong). The party's standing committee acts as the top policy formulation body, and is typically composed of 11 members.

Seven of the districts govern suburbs, satellite towns, and rural areas further away from the urban core: Baoshan (Baoshan County until 1988), Minhang (original Minhang District & Shanghai County until 1992), Jiading (Jiading County until 1992), Jinshan (Jinshan County until 1997), Songjiang (Songjiang County until 1998), Qingpu (Qingpu County until 1999), and Fengxian (Fengxian County until 2001).

The conference and meeting sector is also growing. In 2012, the city hosted 780 international gatherings, up from 754 in 2011. The high supply of hotel rooms has kept room rates lower than expected, with the average room rate for four- and five-star hotels in 2012 at just RMB950 (US$153). Tourism in general has become a major industry. In 2016, 296 million domestic tourists and 8.54 million overseas tourists visited Shanghai for an approximate increase of 7% from the previous year.


 

 
Temple of Heaven
Forbidden City
Summer Palace
Beijing National Stadium
Beijing National Aquatics Center
National Centre for the Performing Arts
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